By Mostafa Abdelaal (University of Cambridge)
This research is due to be presented in the second New Researcher Online Session: ‘Industry, Trade & Technology’
Northern Rhodesia joined Southern Rhodesia and Nyasaland to form the Central African Federation (CAF), which lasted from 1953 to 1963 (Figure 1). During this period, two contrasting images were formed about the Federation’s economic prospects. The first depicts the exploitation of the revenue surpluses of Northern Rhodesia in favour of Southern Rhodesia, (Figure 2). The second typifies Kitwe, one of the main mining-town in the Copperbelt in Northern Rhodesia, as the most rapidly developed town in terms of industrial and commercial sectors (Figure 3). My research examines whether the Federation stimulated or undermined manufacturing growth.
Figure 1: Map of the Central African Federation, 1953-1963
This paper argues that, despite protests to the contrary, manufacturing in Northern Rhodesia grew rapidly under the Federal tariff and might be attributed to the natural protection for some industries against the high costs of transport goods from remote suppliers and to the Federal tariff against South Africa imports.
Figure 2. Cartoon published by Central African Post mirroring one of the readers’ views on the Federation
Figure 3: Kitwe: A model of a mining town in the Copperbelt
My research offers new insights into the rapid growth of the market in Northern Rhodesia. Specifically, to what extent did local industry respond to the mining-led economic expansion in Northern Rhodesia. The first census of industrial production occurred in 1947, which provides a benchmark against which to measure growth rates before and during the Federal tariff system. Industrial production in Northern and Southern Rhodesia grew from 3.3 percent to 6 percent, and from 12 percent to 16.3 percent, respectively, between 1954 and 1963. The net value added of manufacturing in Northern Rhodesia grew from less than £1 million in 1947 to £6.40 million in 1955, then it reached £12.68 million in 1963. Southern Rhodesia witnessed a significant increase in the net value added of manufacturing, from £20 million in 1953 to £50.2 million in 1963.
The composition of manufacturing output before and during the Federation reveals that rapid growth in Northern Rhodesia’s production of food, drinks, textiles, and chemicals — which constituted the majority of domestically manufactured goods (Table 2).
Net value added of manufacturing output in Northern Rhodesia (£ million, nominal)
|Food, drink and tobacco||0.20||1.56||5.13|
|Textiles, clothing, footwear||0.019||0.14||0.43|
|Metal engineering and repairs||0.082||a||1.58|
|Printing and publishing||0.11||0.36||0.64|
|a) Included in ‘others’
b) excluding furniture
c) building materials excluded from manufacturing sector since 1953.
d) includes manufacture of tobacco, made-up textiles other than apparel, furniture, retreading of tyres, chemicals, non-metallic minerals, metal industries other than transport equipment and other, not elsewhere specified (n.e.s.) in 1955, leather and rubber products, chemicals, pottery and other (n.e.s.) in 1963.
|Sources: TNA CO 798/24, Blue Books of Statistics, 1947; NAZ, Monthly Digest of Statistics, Central Statistics Office, Lusaka, December 1955, 1964; Young (1973).|
My research suggests a more nuanced interpretation is required of the importance of Northern Rhodesia to the South. The Federation curbed Northern Rhodesia’s development of specific industries that existed in Southern Rhodesia, especially steel and textiles, thereby disrupting the optimum allocation resources to industrial production in the South.
However, Northern Rhodesia’s net value added of manufacturing output benefited from the application of Federal tariffs in certain consumer industries that grew rapidly, such as processed foods and drinks. Consequently, the Federation was beneficial to the growth of manufacturing in Northern Rhodesia (Zambia).